Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Journal #12: Reflective Post on class EME 2040 Introduction to Technology for Educators

I will start this particular blog off by saying that I found this class to be pretty difficult!  I am taking three classes and I spent WAY more time on this one.  I don’t know about others in this class, but I felt I had a pretty good working knowledge of technology and was excited to use it in the classroom.  I know other teachers and have seen other classrooms where technology isn’t used much (if at all) and I knew I didn’t want to be one of those.  Yet this class has taught me that I knew….well, not much at all!!  I will admit that at first I was like “Seriously?? We need to learn and know all of this?” 


As time went on and I learned more however, I realize that it wasn’t about using it ALL every day.  It is about knowing what is all out there and having a repertoire of knowledge to use for different situations and finding what works best for MY classroom and students!  So I get it now.

I believe I will start off with some things I did not like about this class.  The first thing I had a hard time with was working in groups.  The only reason I didn’t like it was because I felt I tended to put more effort in than most of my group (although not all of them).  I did learn however that may not necessarily be true.  I do have high expectations of myself and so I tend to require that in others, which isn’t always good since others may work different than I do.  I am the TOTAL opposite of a procrastinator, while others may work better under pressure.  I like to start right away and get things done early; while some are comfortable waiting and as long as they get it done on time they are good.  The finished products turned out well so this showed me that it doesn’t have to be done a certain way or in a certain time frame to be good work and also that I can use some “loosening up” when it comes to that.  I did feel that one group project was enough for this particular class.  I thought the Wiki Page assignment could have been done separately since a lot of it was done alone anyway.  For me, it was stressful to wait on others for such a little amount that was “group” related.

 

I also did not like the amount of work, which may sound lazy, but in truth I am FAR from lazy (I was working, taking 3 classes, taking care of my kids & their ball games/activities and my home) and love to read and learn, but I did feel this was a large amount of work and a lot more than in any other class I have taken so far.  I am not sure if that is a fair critique or if the course could do with a little less work, it is just my opinion.  With that being said, I do feel that I am MORE than prepared to use technology as a tool in educating my students in the classroom, and that my students and I will benefit greatly from what I have been able to accomplish in this class (and there is also a sense of pride with how much I have done and was capable of).  Just in creating my own “Teacher Website” digital portfolio to showcase what I have learned in this class was very beneficial and even got me pretty excited about creating a real one when I am actually a teacher.  Seeing my work on a website like that let me see in ‘black & white’ just how much I was able to do this semester.

I did really enjoy a few things in this class!  The Tech Tools in each chapter in our textbook (Maloy, Verock-­O'Loughlin, Edwards & Woolf. 2013) were extremely helpful and showed me so many things to make things easier in teaching, grading and my own continuing education.  I also enjoyed looking at websites or material and critiquing them to see if I would like to use them as a teacher or if I thought students would enjoy them and learn from them.  I have often just skimmed though a page and decided it wasn’t useful.  Actually taking the time to really evaluate them from not only my view but from a possible students’ view was one of the main lessons I learned in this class.  Learning how to evaluate information properly and taking the time to really see what they offered was especially enlightening.

The discussion post in this class I actually liked a lot.  I got to research and post my opinion and findings on various issues.  My favorite was the Legal an Ethical Issues Discussion.  I am a “Black & White”, wrong/right kind of person so I do tend to live my life based on what is considered to me to be moral and base my beliefs based on basic human compassion.   It was interesting to see that so many people chose the same topic of Cyberbullying as well.  This showed me that it is a major issue that has hit home with a lot of people.  I am glad to have been a part of that discussion and to tell my own story and to provide others with information and tolls like Stopbulling.gov that gives tips on how to stop bullying.  I hope it helped others as well.


The last thing I will talk about is all that I learned about technology and assistive tools to help teach diverse/special needs and English Language Learners.  Teaching these students has honestly given me more anxiety than any other aspect of teaching.  I live in Southwest Florida, so ELL students for example are a way of life.  I was not afraid to TEACH these students.  I was afraid of FAILING them as a good attentive teacher!  The strategies and tools I learned in this class (one of my favorites was Brainpopesl.com) helped ease some of my anxiety and showed me that there are so many tools out there to help these students and help ME help them.  I also found information about assistive tools for everything from Autism (Stokes, 2013) to severe allergies in my research and the research of others in the class for assignments.  I wasn’t aware there were so many helpful tools available for these students and their teachers.

Now that I have neared the completion of this course, I can say with certainty that I feel capable of tackling the task of incorporating a variety of technology, assistive learning tools and educational strategies into my lessons, and use the skills taught through our textbook, technology based assignments and the material & feedback given by Professor Coleman to enhance my teaching style.  I believe it will give me the ability to give my students all the effort I can put into their education and my own.  That IS and should be our goal in this and future classes.  To that end, this course did just that.
REFERENCES

BrainPOP © 1999–2014. BrainPop ESL Tour [Video]. Retrieved from the Web.

Hogan, Chrystal. April 2014. ‘Seriously??’ [photograph].
Maloy,R.W., Verock-­O'Loughlin, R., Edwards, S. A., & Woolf, B. P. (2013). Transforming learning with new technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Stokes, Susan. Assistive Technology for Children with Autism. Special Education Services. Web. 13. Feb. 2014. Retrieved from Web.
Stopbulling.gov. Website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from Web.

YouTube. “Cyber Bullying Virus”. Daniel Fraser. March. 2013. Retrieved from Web.
YouTube. “The legend of Pig and Chicken, and effective group work”. Maryna Badenhorst. Nov. 2008. Retrieved from Web.

Friday, April 11, 2014

Journal Entry #11, Chapter 11: Engaging Students in Performance Assessment and Reflective Learning

Focus Question: How can teachers and students use digital portfolios as tools for learning?

For teachers, digital portfolios are helpful in two ways.  The first is that is allows them to save material that will help them with current and future classroom instruction.  Just as in this class, where we are saving website and bookmarking them for later use, teachers can do the same.  This enables them quick access to material that was helpful to them.  This makes lesson planning and information gathering much quicker, saving the teacher time, but not taking away from the quality of instruction.

The second way is that can show a sort of time-line of the growth of a teacher, not only for themselves, but for being evaluation purposes.  Anyone can see how far a teacher has come and how the quality of work has increased.  From their resume to their accomplishments, a digital portfolio will help in all aspects of teaching and evaluating.

Students also use digital portfolios for the same basic reasons as teachers do, to keep their work and show what they have done and to show their progress.  This helps with performace reviews and helps the teachers, students and parents work together to know what needs to be worked on and what the student has mastered. 



Tech Tool 11.2

Tech Tool 11.2 explains what Polls & Survey sites and Apps are available to use for educational purposes.  For instance, one of my recent Sunday School classes used a poll on SurveyMonkey to see if the students liked the lessons that had been taught that month.  Other sites such as Zoomerang can be used and offers so many different types of surveys and options to formulate the exact type of survey needed.  Sites like this can make it more fun and engaging for students.  Students can use these sites to do their own surveys and incorporate it in their projects and assignments using real data they collect from the surveys and their peers.


Summary & Connection

Chapter 11 goes over the topics of student assessments and the use of digital portfolios for both students and teachers.  I believe Performance based assessment is the best tool for evaluation as it allows for us to see the real application of the knowledge learned throughout the year.  Seeing what a student has learned through actual applied work and assignments shows how well they have grasped the concepts of the lessons. 

There are a lot of benefits for both teachers and students to use digital portfolios to enhance and showcase their work.  They have quick access to all their achievements later.  This can be used for evaluation or for help with lesson planning in the future as well.  For students, it can also be used as a tool for refreshing on a subject they haven’t worked on in a while. I have had my son save his work from previous grades in a folder on our computer and label them so he can go back when he needs help.  

Resources:

Textbook- Maloy, Robert, Verock-O’Loughlin,Ruth-Ellen, Edwards, Sharon A., and Woolf, Beverly Park (2013). Transforming Learning with New Technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
YouTube. “Teachers e-portfolio.wmv ”. Author: samispil. May 2010. Retrieved from Web.
YouTube. “Introducing SurveyMonkey, the World's Largest Survey Company  ”. SurveyMonkey. April 2013. Retrieved from Web.

Sunday, April 6, 2014

Journal Entry #10, Chapter 10: Promoting Success for All Students through Technology


Focus Question: How can technology engage and inspire learning for diverse students?

One of the most important ways that teachers can help diverse students learn is having them work in small groups.  Not only does this help the student learn the subject matter, but it gives the student a chance to work with their peers and have their peers get to know them.  For diverse students, the social interaction aspect is often overlooked and deemed unimportant.  However, especially in a safe learning environment of a small group, social interaction may be even more important at times than the actual subject matter itself! 

Technology can play a very important role in teaching a diverse student body.  Using computers for internet or working in small groups to complete research and projects promotes learning and positive interaction with peers.  The feeling of accomplishing something together starts to break down the barriers that diversity can cause.  Diversity is a wonderful thing and if used properly, can be a great learning tool as well.  It is a great way for students to tell others about their culture through technology such as videos and pictures on the web, or even interacting with a classroom from another country.



Tech Tool 10.2

Chapter 10 Tech Tool 10.2 discusses the types of calculators that are available with technology these days.  There are regular handheld, online and app calculators available for the use of students and PARENTS.  Just last week I needed to check my 6th grade son’s homework and found that it had been too long to remember how to convert some things.  I was able to find a conversion calculator, along with some helpful sites to “remind” me how to do the problems.  One of the tools mentioned in this section is Web 2.0 Calc which is an actual calculator you can use and put into blogs and as a widget. 




Summary & Connection

Chapter 10 discusses how different types of technology can help the diverse student body.  The rapidly growing number of students who are cultural or linguistically diverse has changed the way teachers are expected to teach their students and technology is the way to bring these diversities together.  Whether it is in the form of small group learning, letting students share their culture with their fellow classmates or sharing lessons with classes around the world, teaching students about diversity and how to welcome it and benefit from it will help our country and communities thrive in the long run.  What I have come to understand is that diverse is not just in culture or races.  Diversity is ALL the ways that students are different from each other.  I think we sometimes get caught up in the line of thought that only 2nd language learners or different races counts as diversity.  Diversity can mean so many different things.  The key is understanding that even if two students come from similar backgrounds and speak the same language, they may have very diverse learning styles.  As we have talked about before, getting to know your students is a very important part of the job as a teacher and will be critical in making a diverse classroom work in the favor of who it matters to most……The Students!
 


Resources:



RaceBridges for Schools. 2013. Cooperative Learning and Diversity. [photograph]. Retrieved from Web.
Textbook - Maloy, Robert, Verock-O’Loughlin,Ruth-Ellen, Edwards, Sharon A., and Woolf, Beverly Park (2013). Transforming Learning with New Technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
YouTube. “Top 10 Reasons to Use Technology in Education: iPad, Tablet, Computer, Listening Centers”. Bob AmpliVox. Oct 2011. Retrieved from Web.

YouTube. “Using the iframe gadget in Google Sites”. Author: ipt287instructor. Jan 2012. Retrieved from Web.

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Journal Entry #9, Chapter 9: Expressing Creativity with Multimedia Technologies



Focus Question: How can teachers create PowerPoint presentations for maximum teaching potential and learning impact?

PowerPoint is a multimedia software package that lets virtually anyone create a well-organized visual and auditory presentation for any group of people.  This tool can be very effective and students would rather look at about anything other than a textbook.  If enough attention is given to the design of the PowerPoint, students will pay more attention to the content.  Using this program to show information in several different ways such as photos, videos and more can get the students more engaged, interested and involved than a boring old textbook!  

Of course there are correct and incorrect ways to design the PowerPoints and there some effective strategies to know, including the ones shown to us by Professor Coleman in ‘Life After Death by PowerPoint 2010’ with Don McMillan.  Below is another good example:

 

Tech Tool 9.2

This section of chapter 9 discusses the different types of streaming video resources for teachers.  As with a lot I have learned in this class, I knew some of the websites that were mentioned but not all and learned a great deal.  As we have discussed copyright in this class previously, I am aware of it and like that YouTube offers not only a special section for teachers to use, but a place where there are videos that can be used and edited without the fear of infringing on any copyright laws like Creative Commons.  PBS is also mentioned in this section.  PBS has been around for years and has always been an acceptable educational media outlet.  I still remember watching it for certain programs when I was in school.


Summary & Connection

Chapter 9 is about multimedia formats that can be used in the classroom setting to give not only teachers, but students as well, a way to present material in a more interesting and engaging way.  With everything from YouTube to PowerPoint that are available these days, there really is no excuse to not use some of these technology tools to educate our young people (and they can be used for lots of others things as well and in other professions other than teaching). 

Although multimedia can be a great tool in the classroom, it is also to be emphasized that it is the WAY they are used that determines if these tools benefit the students (and they can make presenting material easier for the teacher as well).  If you only use videos and PowerPoints but do not give students a way to respond and actively participate in interactive assignments associated with them, then they will not be near as beneficial and the students will become bored and uninterested, just as they have with textbooks.   
 

Resources:

Textbook - Maloy, Robert, Verock-O’Loughlin,Ruth-Ellen, Edwards, Sharon A., and Woolf, Beverly Park (2013). Transforming Learning with New Technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

YouTube. “How to Give an Awesome (PowerPoint) Presentation”. Wienot Films. May 2011. Retrieved from Web.

YouTube. “Creative Commons & Copyright Info”. Video Magazine. May 2012. Retrieved from Web.

Friday, March 14, 2014

Journal Entry #8, Chapter 8: Communicating and Collaborating with Social Media


Focus Question: How can teachers use email or text messaging to foster information exchanges with and among students?

I will admit that this question has me thinking.  I have problems with this issue.  I have three children all 7 years apart ranging from 19 to 5.  Of course my 19 year old daughter has a phone and texts ALL the time.  I’ve had issues with it for a while though.  My issues stem from her not being able to carry on a normal conversation with someone or being “too shy” to order her own food at a restaurant but has NO problem texting all kinds of things including things she shouldn’t.  I tried to explain to her that if she wouldn’t say it to someone directly to their face, she shouldn’t text it either.  My 12 year old son went to his first middle school dance and was disappointed because they all sat around on their iPhone and iPod and no one DANCED or TALKED.  So, my point is that I feel a lot of teens today are not socially prepared for the real word because it is ALL digital.  Hey can’t seem to have a normal verbal conversation with each other, much less adults.  I think it is a great idea to use technology, I do.  Our society is evolving into a strong technology based one.  However, I also think there is a limit and a line that people cross every day.  I refuse to let my 5 year old have an iPod or my 12 year old to have a phone.  I have strict rules of when they can have these things and how much they will be used.  My daughter still tried to text me with real problems and requests.  RIDICULOUS.  I refuse to answer them and tell her to call if it is important to TALK.  I know the world is different now, but I think it has gone a bit too far in some cases.  I think that email and text could be used in high school/college levels, but any lower than that should be the old fashioned face-to-face “we need to talk about your grades”.

With that being said, I do believe that email and text is a great way to communicate with parents!  Their lives are very busy too, a lot work one or more jobs and have multiple kids.  Until recently I was working, had kids and was taking three classes so I got emails from my kids teachers.  This was an effective way to contact me.  I couldn’t talk on the phone during the day due to work and I definitely did not have the time for a face-to-face meeting unless there was an emergency.  My kid’s teachers would email me with problems or grades and it was great. 

What this busy semester has taught me is that just because a parent can’t come in to a conference or participate in school things does NOT mean they don’t care about their child’s grades.  I care a lot and stay on my kids and check ALL their homework, even with  my schedule and I check the portal for grades at least once a week.  As a teacher I won’t know how much is going on in a student’s life or their parents.  Finding ANY way to communicate with the parents is KEY.




Tech Tool 8.2

In this section I read about Skype.  I LOVE Skype and use it a lot.  I moved to Southwest Florida in August of 2012 which is 1,000 miles away from all my family and friends.  We have my husband’s side here and his friends but it was still difficult.  My daughter is also back home in college.  Skype has really been an amazing and wonderful thing for us to be able to communicate and even feel like we are all in the same room for occasions like Christmas.

There are different ways Skype can be used in the classroom but I think one of the best is to be able to talk and learn from other classrooms all across the world.  This would allow students in both classes to learn from each other, for the teachers to be able to collaborate in teaching and to do it visually as well.  Imagine learning about Africa from a classroom and teacher IN Africa and them learning from us in America!  The possibilities are really endless to use Skype as a learning and teaching tool.

 

Summary & Connection

In Chapter 8 the discussion was on all the ways that social media can help in the learning process and teacher relations with students and parents including email, teacher Blogs & Websites (which I LOVE) and Skype.  As I stated above, I love the educational uses of Skype and am all for using technology to learn things that would not normally be available to us.  I also agree with using any type of technology needed to reach parents for collaboration on the student’s well-being and making sure they are learning at their full potential.  I also love using technology to help my own children learn new things so I am eager to use it in my classroom.  However, I do feel that we can go too far to quickly at times and don’t want to totally replace conversation and human interaction with digital ones.  I still believe that talking with my students face-to-face is very important as well.

 

Resources:

Textbook - Maloy, Robert, Verock-O’Loughlin,Ruth-Ellen, Edwards, Sharon A., and Woolf, Beverly Park (2013). Transforming Learning with New Technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

YouTube. May 2012 "Skype Kids”. [video]. Retrieved from Web.

Hogan, Chrystal. March 2014. ‘My Boys & Technology”.  [photograph].

Sunday, February 23, 2014

Journal Post #7, Chapter 7: Exploring Problem Solving with Software, Apps and Games


Focus Question: What are key debates about using computer games and simulations as learning resources?

Some educators are very open about using games and simulations in the classroom and understand that not only is it important to keep up with today’s technology, but also how differently students learn as time goes on.  Still, other educators hold fast to their archaic beliefs that technology has no place in the classroom.

GET WITH THE TIMES.  There is no other way to put it.  Decades ago, naysayers said that computers would never take off and there was no real need for them.  Now they are in just about every home, including those with low income because there are special programs to help families with school age children to get one (such as the One Laptop Per Child).  There is Wi-Fi almost everywhere you go and even our phones are capable of doing what most computers can.  Having technology in the classroom is not only a necessity but it is inevitable, so fighting it will only cause those students to be behind in today’s world.

There IS a balance of course. Learning tools like 4MALITY mentioned in our text are wonderful tools to help students learn.  Again, it is important to understand that not all students learn the same.  For Rosie in Chapter 7, the technology actually HELPED her to understand math AND like it, where classroom instruction had not.  There needs to be a balance of both and an understanding by teachers on what will work to engage their students.  If you are doing only one or the other (computer/game teaching or only classroom instruction) you are not only behind in the times, but you are keeping your students there as well.

 
 
Tech Tool 7.1

This section in Chapter 7 focuses on two websites (www.squeakland.org, and http://scratch.mit.edu) that help all grades with subjects like Math and Science and teach them to think for themselves using interactive games and Scratch even lets them make their own! 

I believe that in a lot of schools today, there is a lack of teaching students to be independent thinkers and problem solvers.  They are waiting for someone else to tell them how to think, how to come up with answers and how to come up with even more inquisitive questions to further their learning.  Without these skills, it is hard to function properly in most environments, much less our technology driven society today.  Websites and programs like the ones above help to teach students how to creatively come up with answers to problems.  This will further their decision making skills as well.


Summary & Connection

In Chapter 7 the elements of learning through software, gaming and inquiry based programs are discussed.  There are still a few stragglers in education who think that the classroom is no place for technology but for the most part, most educators realize its importance and see it as a great tool to help students learn and grow to be ready for today’s society, and the future one.

I thought it interesting that some of our modern educators (like Alfie Kohn mentioned in our text) still believe that children don’t learn with a rewards system.  I find that this is untrue on all levels.  I have 3 children, all 7 years apart and I myself am in college.  In all 3 of my children, I have seen them work harder and better when their teacher (and us as parents) offer rewards for learning and doing well.  It has been said they may learn enough to meet the goal but not retain it.  I actually have seen the opposite.  When there is a reward attached, all three of my children remember the material, the reward and how accomplished they felt years later.  In my own college courses, some of our teachers play “Jeopardy” to help the class prepare for the upcoming tests and give out 5 additional points to the winners.  Not only did the winners remember, but the ones who lost benefited from the game and NO ONE failed the test.  I don’t need statistics to show me what works in real life. I can SEE it.  In the following video, using rewards in one of the top 10 Classroom Management tips!



Resources:

Textbook - Maloy, Robert, Verock-O’Loughlin,Ruth-Ellen, Edwards, Sharon A., and Woolf, Beverly Park (2013). Transforming Learning with New Technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

2013 Edudemic (David Matheson 2013).  Technology Should: [photograph]. Retrieved from Web.
AmpliVox, Bob (Nov. 2011). Top 10 Proven Classroom Management Tips for Teachers [ www.youtube.com video]. Retrieved from Web.

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Journal Post #6: Chapter 6, Fostering Online Learning with Educational Websites and Apps


Focus Question: What are the advantages and complexities of online leaning and virtual schools?

I understand the need for technology in the classroom.  I support it and plan to use it on a regular basis, and I believe it is a necessity for teachers to learn how to teach with technology and students to learn how to use it effectively with the growing use of it in the workforce.  I also am not against taking online classes or “blended” as it integrates both face-to-face and collaborative learning with technology.  However, I am totally against using ONLY online education to get any degree except in extreme cases (such as immobility causing it to be extremely difficult to get to a school). 

I have seen lots of children who have been home-schooled and 9 out of 10 have a lot of trouble communicating properly with other children their own age.  This may not be the case with all home-schooled children of course, and other factors will play a role, but in general, a student needs to learn and grow with children their own age.  This is ESSENTIAL to thriving in our society.  Staying at home has become a trend for a lot of parents who, instead of teaching their kids how to deal with difficult situations, have taken them out of the classroom to “protect them”.  This does not protect them.  It teaches them to run from their problems and when they enter the real world, they have no earthly idea how to handle a mean boss or co-worker or any real conflict in adulthood.

My daughter (now in her 1st year of college) wanted to quit regular school and take online classes because the kids at school were “totally immature” and aggravating and she didn’t like getting up so early for class.  We said NO WAY as she needed to learn to deal with people, the good and the bad, and that in the real world she would likely have to get up early and go to work.  Being in school teaches social skills and life lessons needed for adulthood.

Besides, a great education is done BOTH at school and at home.

 



Tech Tool 6.3

This section in Chapter 6 focuses on some websites and Apps that help students get technology based engagement in certain subject matter.  Websites such as ‘Mysteries of Catalhoyuk! An Archaeological Investigation’ allow students to learn about history from thousands of years ago by interacting with the site and getting the students interested in things like what people ate during that time.  Who doesn’t want to know what people ate for dinner 10,000 years ago?! 

My favorite site listed would have to be www.favoritepoem.org.  I plan to teach middle school English and I know children have a hard time trying to decipher the meaning of poems.  This site not only reads the poems aloud but has videos to help the student (or anyone interested) relate and understand what is being conveyed.  This will be an excellent tool and I have already added it to my Delicious account! 

My favorite poem by Robert Frost is "OUT, OUT”.  I first read it in high school when my English teacher took me aside (I was having difficulty with the poetry section we were on and was getting frustrated) and said the poem reminded her of me, not because of the working boy who dies, but because of the loss of his childhood, even before his death.  It took a few times of reading it before I understood its meaning and then when I did, WOW could I relate as I lost my childhood at a very young age and never got it back.  I had to grow up way too soon.  I will never forget that teacher and what she saw in me without me speaking of it, and her taking an interest in me and getting me to actually like exploring the meaning of things in more depth.



Summary & Connection

Chapter 6 in our book discusses information management and how important it is to use not only technology, but different ways to organize what you use and how you use it.  Social networking and social bookmarking have become very useful tools in effectively using technology in teaching and reaching out to others who are knowledgeable in certain areas to gain more insight and information to use.  And who knows, maybe one day a new teacher will be using information I have gathered and found effective. 

This chapter also discusses homeschool vs. public school education and what advocates and critics both feel is right for the students.  I do feel it is every parent’s choice to make, but as I stated above, I believe students benefit more from being around and learning to deal with their peers and the adults around them.  I do also feel that taking some online classes or courses is beneficial to all students as well to prepare them for college and for the work force.


Resources:

Textbook - Maloy, Robert, Verock-O’Loughlin,Ruth-Ellen, Edwards, Sharon A., and Woolf, Beverly Park (2013). Transforming Learning with New Technologies. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

The Favorite Poem Project. "OUT, OUT—” by Robert Frost , read by Elizabeth Wojtusik [video: produced by Natatcha Est├ębanez]. Retrieved from Web.

Hogan, Chrystal. Feb 2014. ‘Pros & Con’s’ [photograph].